How to Fit Solar Panels to A Flat Roof (Simple Installation)

When you look at installers mounting solar panels on roofs, they are mostly put on sloped roofs. It makes sense since sloped roofs angled the solar panels, helping them catch some sun. 

But what about flat roof panels? Can you actually install solar panels on flat roofs? If you can, what is the best way to fit solar panels to a flat roof in the easiest way possible?

You can install solar panel systems on a flat roof. You normally mount the panels on a flat roof, using a different bracketing system that allows you to tilt your solar panels toward the sun. Potential issues with flat roof solar installation include shading and pooling of water under the panels. You also may need to clean them more frequently.

This article explores how you can fit solar panels to a flat roof. Aside from that, it will also look at the upsides and downsides of doing so.

Can You Install Solar Panels To A Flat Roof?

You can install solar panel systems on a flat roof. The key is to mount them to an adjustable bracketing system, so you can tilt the panels to get proper solar exposure.

In some situations, you can get away with mounting your panels flat, such as if you live on the equator.

You can install solar panels on a flat roof. In fact, you may see solar panels successfully mounted on flat surfaces, such as the rooftops of factory complexes or flat desert grounds. 

For many flat roof installations, the difference is that a unique bracketing system allows the panels to be tilted at the right angle. Tilting helps to ensure that solar panels get the maximum sun exposure and generate maximum electricity.

However, in some localities, having your solar panels mounted flat may make sense, especially if your house is located very close to the equator. The further your location is from the equator, the more your panels need to tilt.

The solar panels used for flat roof installations also generally are not much different from regular solar panels. This means regular solar panels can be used and mounted both ways. 

How To Fit Solar Panels To A Flat Roof?

The steps to fit solar panels to a flat roof are as follows:

  1. Check With Local Regulations
  2. Ensure Your Flat Roof Is Suitable
  3. Select Solar Panel System To Install
  4. Install The Framing And Bracketing
  5. Install The Solar Panels
  6. Set Up The Wiring And Energy Storage System
  7. Test And Optimize
  8. Connect To The Electrical Grid
  9. Set A Regular Maintenance Plan And Follow 

Installing solar panel systems on a flat roof is not too different from a sloped roof. In fact, it could be a safer job to do since you are not moving around on a sloped surface. However, it still involves a series of steps you want to follow carefully to ensure a smooth process.

Step 1: Check With Local Regulations

Before you even get started with any surveying or purchasing work, ensure you check with any local authorities where you live to see the requirements. These may include local HOAs (Homeowners Associations) and county or municipal governments.

Generally, it is highly unlikely that you will not be allowed to install solar panels. However, the laws around solar panel installations are to ensure your panels do not cause discomfort to your neighbors, such as glare or being an eyesore. 

Your local government may also have incentives to support solar panel installations. It may be wise to check on this to see if you can reduce your total installation costs. 

Step 2: Ensure Your Flat Roof Is Suitable

Your next step would be to see if your flat roof can accommodate solar panels. 

The general rule is that the surface needs to be flat, structurally sound, and capable of supporting the weight of the panels, mounting, and peripherals. It also needs to be able to handle drilling since you will need to drill holes to mount your supporting brackets. 

If unsure, consider getting a structural engineer to come in and conduct checks on your behalf. The authorities in your living area may also request this to ensure compliance with the building codes.

Step 3: Select Solar Panel System To Install

Now, spend some time determining the right solar panel system to install. There are generally several types to think about:

Penetrating System: Penetrating systems would be the most common system. You basically use crew and bolts to secure the mounting and brackets to the roof. 

Ballast System: Consider using ballast systems if you prefer not to have any drilling done on the rooftop. Instead of bolting, it uses weights to secure the mounting and bracketing.

Hybrid System: Hybrid system combines the two, allowing you to have the best of both systems.

Step 4: Install The Framing And Bracketing

Start by laying out and marking the location of the panels and brackets on the roof or support structure.

Install the brackets securely onto the roof or support structure using appropriate fasteners.

Attach the framing members to the brackets using bolts and nuts, making sure they are level and square.

Install any necessary rails or crossbars to connect the framing members together.

Once the framing is complete, secure the solar panels onto the framework using mounting hardware provided by the manufacturer.

Finally, test each panel to ensure proper electrical output and connection to your system.

Step 5: Install The Solar Panels

Installation work often starts with securing mounting brackets and framing to the rooftop surface. Then you put in the supporting rails and framing before putting the individual solar panels on them.

Depending on your skills and comfort with DIY work, you can install them yourself, or hire contractors to get the job done.

Step 6: Set Up The Wiring And Energy Storage System

Once you have put the hardware in place, the next stage is connecting the systems. This means you need to work on wiring and set up the complementing systems for the solar panels. 

The work commonly starts with installing the inverters, battery, and monitoring system before wiring them together. Wiring can be dangerous for someone who does not know what they are doing, so it could be a good idea to have professionals come in instead.

Step 7: Test And Optimize

Now that all is working, you can move into the finer details of the work to test and optimize. At the start, you should ensure that all the parts in the system are working as intended. You may need to check every panel, inverter, and all to confirm this.

Next, you can spend time experimenting with how far you should tilt your panels to get the most sunlight exposure to your panels. You can also see if you could optimize your energy use to ensure you give time for your solar panels to charge up the battery.

Step 8: Connect To The Electrical Grid

This may not be necessary for everyone. However, depending on your energy use, you can connect your solar energy system to the local power grid or use it separately. 

Suppose your localities have plans such as buying excess electricity from solar panels. In that case, you can connect them to the grid to sell the excess energy. You can make money from your panels this way.

Step 9: Set A Regular Maintenance Schedule And Follow 

Finally, as with everything in life, your solar panels need regular maintenance. This is even more so on solar panels mounted on flat roofs, as there are more potential hazards. 

Setting a more frequent cleaning schedule to clean the flat rooftop surface and the panels may be a good idea. Regular performance checks should also be done to ensure your panels are always operating at their maximum ability.

What Are The Pros Of Flat Roof Solar Panels?

The upside of installing solar panels on flat roofs includes creating shading so that the panels are not seen from the street. Having panels on flat roofs may also make maintenance easier since you are accessing the panels from a flat surface, not a sloped roof.

Installing solar panels on a flat surface may be less common than on a sloped roof, but it has many possible upsides. These include, but are not limited to:

Creates Shading 

In many buildings, if the rooftop structure is flat, they are usually left unused or open. It is too exposed to the sun, wind, or rain. This can be a waste in an urban environment since every inch of space counts here. 

If you mount your solar panels on a flat rooftop, you may have it function as some form of ‘rooftop’ to create shading and protection. It could soak up the sun while shading the surface below it. 

You can then use the surface below for activities like a BBQ area or a workshop. You can even turn it into a place for sports.

This is, of course, provided that you mount your panels on a tall bracketing structure. You may need at least 9 feet of space between your panels and the rooftop floor.

Not Seen From The Street

As much as solar panels are rather common today, they still can attract unwanted attention from passers-by. This may not be something you enjoy. 

In fact, solar panel thefts are a real thing. Cases of solar panel thefts can happen, especially during energy price surges. The recent increase in living costs may also result in more possible issues like this in the future.

This means it may be wise not to ‘advertise’ that you have solar panels, to spare yourself the headache and unease.

Easier Maintenance Work (On Some Aspects)

Another good thing about installing solar panels on a flat surface is that you can access them easily for maintenance work. 

If your panels are mounted on a sloped roof, it can be challenging to climb up to the roof to reach your panels. Not to mention that it could potentially be dangerous. 

You can easily walk up to the panels and work on them with a flat roof. If your panels are mounted off the flat roof, you need a ladder to climb up, which is much safer than moving up and around a sloped roof.

What Are The Cons Of Flat Roof Solar Panels?

Installing solar panel systems on a flat roof can result in some other issues, such as water pooling on the surface. There may also be shading issues, which may cause you to install fewer panels than on a sloped roof. Finally, you may need to perform more frequent maintenance and cleaning work.

You may think that you will need to spend more money since you need a different bracketing system to install solar panels on flat rooftops. 

You do not need to sweat about this since solar panel installations on flat rooftops generally cost about the same as sloped roof installations. 

You do have other potential issues you will need to contend with flat roof solar panels, such as:

Efficiency Issues

When you install solar panel systems on a flat roof, what happens is that the panels are placed side by side and then angled to face the sun. 

However, when angled, the panels may create shading for the others around them. This issue is more pronounced when the panels are placed close to each other. Shaded panels receive no sunlight, meaning they cannot produce electricity.

In some situations, panels are placed a little further from each other to prevent this. As a result, your panel coverage on a flat roof may not be as much as if you have panels on a sloped roof. This may mean less power generated per square inch of rooftop space.


Another issue with flat roof solar panels would be pooling. The surface below the panels and brackets is flat, so they are likely to collect many things. The most common would be water, while dust, snow, leaves, or bird droppings may also be common. 

The concern is that they may pool on the bracketing mounting holes or poles, causing them to rust and affecting the overall structure of the brackets. 

May Require Frequent Maintenance

As a result, if you have a flat roof solar installation, you may need to perform more maintenance work. At the most basic, you must clean the roof surface and ensure no water is pooling around the bracketing mounts and holes. 

In some cases, you may also have more flatly angled panels, which means they may catch dirt, leaves, and things easily. You also may need to clean them more frequently. Fortunately, cleaning solar panels is rather easy. You can use alcohol, baking soda, and even toothpaste.

Final Thoughts

With the right bracketing system and regular maintenance, you can have a fully functional solar power system on your flat roof.

It’s important to consider the potential downsides such as shading and water pooling before making a final decision.

If you’re looking to reduce your carbon footprint and save money in the long run, installing solar panels on a flat roof is definitely worth considering.